# Format units

Table of SI units by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

We can avoid the need for powers-of-ten notation by adjusting the measurement units assigned to a numerical vector. For example, we can convert $$101.3 \times 10^{3}$$ Pa to 1013 hPa or 101.3 kPa.

We use the units package for this feature. The formatdown::format_units() function is a wrapper for units::as_units(), allowing us to assign basic physical units to a numerical vector and performing unit conversions that transform the numerical value to match the new measurements units.

As a brief illustration, consider a pressure measurement of 101,300 Pa.

# Scalar value assigned a measurement unit
x <- 101300
units(x) <- "Pa"

# Original value
format_units(x, big_mark = ",")
#> [1] "101,300 [Pa]"

# Convert to hPa
format_units(x, unit = "hPa")
#> [1] "1013 [hPa]"

# Convert to psi
format_units(x, digits = 3, unit = "psi")
#> [1] "14.7 [psi]"

These values are rendered using inline R code in an .Rmd or .qmd output document as follows:

• Original pressure measurement: 101,300 [Pa]

• Convert measurement units: 1013 [hPa]

• Convert measurement units: 14.7 [psi]

Like other formatdown functions, format_units() operates on a numerical vector to output a character vector for rendering in an R Markdown or Quarto Markdown document. Unlike format_power() however, format_units() does not apply inline math delimiters.

## format_units()

Given a number, a numerical vector, or a numerical column from a data frame, format_units() converts the numbers to character strings of the form,

    "a [u]" 

where a is the number and u is the measurement unit. The user can specify the number of significant digits.

Arguments.

• x   Vector to be formatted, of class numeric or class units. Can be a scalar, a vector, or a column from a data frame.

• digits   Numeric scalar, a positive integer. Applied as the digits argument of base::format(). Enough decimal places are included such that the smallest magnitude value has this many significant digits.

• unit   Character scalar, units label compatible with units package.

• unit_form   Character scalar. Possible values are “standard” (default) and “implicit” (implicit exponent form). In standard form, units are related with arithmetic symbols for multiplication, division, and powers, e.g., "kg/m^3" or "W/(m*K)". In implicit exponent form, symbols are separated by spaces and numbers represent exponents, e.g., "kg m-3" or "W m-1 K-1".

• big_mark   Character. Applied as the big.mark argument of base::format(). Default is "". If a period is selected for big_mark, the decimal mark is changed to a comma.

If you are writing your own script to follow along, we use these packages in this vignette:

library(formatdown)
library(data.table)
suppressPackageStartupMessages(library(units))
library(knitr)

## Scalar

Assign a value and units,

x <- 101300
units(x) <- "Pa"

Use with inline R code.

r format_units(x)
r format_units(x, unit = "hPa")

which, in an .Rmd or .qmd document, are rendered as

• 101300 [Pa].
• 1013 [hPa].

## Vector

The atmos data set included with formatdown has an altitude variable alt in meters. The columns do not include units metadata. Column is class numeric.

# Variable is class numeric
x <- atmos$alt x #> [1] 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 class(x) #> [1] "numeric" Assign measurement units to match the source values and format. Results are class character. x_char <- format_units(x, unit = "m") x_char #> [1] "0 [m]" "10000 [m]" "20000 [m]" "30000 [m]" "40000 [m]" "50000 [m]" #> [7] "60000 [m]" "70000 [m]" "80000 [m]" If we intend to convert the units, e.g., from meters to kilometers, we have to assign the source measurement units before using format_units(). Results are numeric, class units. # Assign units before formatting units(x) <- "m" x #> Units: [m] #> [1] 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 class(x) #> [1] "units" Convert units and format. The numbers change to match the unit conversion. Results are class character. # Covert units and format as character x_char <- format_units(x, unit = "km") x_char #> [1] "0 [km]" "10 [km]" "20 [km]" "30 [km]" "40 [km]" "50 [km]" "60 [km]" #> [8] "70 [km]" "80 [km]" ## Digits The digits argument sets the number of significant digits. Here, temperature values (K) are reported to 4 significant digits. x <- sort(atmos$temp, decreasing = TRUE)
format_units(x, digits = 4, unit = "K")
#> [1] "288.1 [K]" "270.6 [K]" "250.3 [K]" "247.0 [K]" "226.5 [K]" "223.2 [K]"
#> [7] "219.6 [K]" "216.7 [K]" "198.6 [K]"

With values in decimal form, reducing digits to 3 has the expected effect of rounding to the units place.

format_units(x, digits = 3, unit = "K")
#> [1] "288 [K]" "271 [K]" "250 [K]" "247 [K]" "227 [K]" "223 [K]" "220 [K]"
#> [8] "217 [K]" "199 [K]"

However, reducing digits to 2 has no additional effect. To reduce the number of significant digits further, we apply signif() to the numerical values before formatting with format_units().

# Values are not converted to 2 significant digits
format_units(x, digits = 2, unit = "K")
#> [1] "288 [K]" "271 [K]" "250 [K]" "247 [K]" "227 [K]" "223 [K]" "220 [K]"
#> [8] "217 [K]" "199 [K]"

# Apply signif() before formatting
format_units(signif(x, 2), unit = "K")
#> [1] "290 [K]" "270 [K]" "250 [K]" "250 [K]" "230 [K]" "220 [K]" "220 [K]"
#> [8] "220 [K]" "200 [K]"

If values span different orders of magnitude, the number of significant digits is applied to the smallest magnitude value and the number of decimal places in the other values is set to match.

For example, from the metals data set included with formatdown, the elastic modulus values (Pa) are converted to (GPa) with digits = 3.

x <- sort(metalselast_mod, decreasing = TRUE) units(x) <- "Pa" format_units(x, digits = 3, unit = "GPa") #> [1] "206.8 [GPa]" "146.9 [GPa]" "117.2 [GPa]" "102.0 [GPa]" "73.1 [GPa]" #> [6] "13.8 [GPa]" Three digits applied to the smallest magnitude value yields “13.8 [GPa]”. Larger values are then formatted to the same number of decimal places. Thus some larger values will have more than three digits, e.g., “206.8 [GPa]”. ## Data frame Using the atmos data set include with formatdown with various atmospheric properties as a function of height above sea level. # Data set included with formatdown DT <- copy(atmos) # Render in document knitr::kable(DT, align = "r") alt temp pres dens sound 0 288.15 101300.00 1.23e+00 340.29 10000 223.25 26500.00 4.14e-01 299.53 20000 216.65 5529.00 8.89e-02 295.07 30000 226.51 1197.00 1.84e-02 301.71 40000 250.35 287.00 4.00e-03 317.19 50000 270.65 80.00 1.03e-03 329.80 60000 247.02 22.00 3.10e-04 315.07 70000 219.59 5.22 8.28e-05 297.06 80000 198.64 1.05 1.85e-05 282.54 Formatting one column at a time, assigning and converting units, and assigning significant digits ad-hoc. When numerical values in a column span a number of orders of magnitude, the number in the column with the smallest magnitude, e.g., pressure or density last row, is displayed with the number of significant digits specified by the digits argument. units(DTalt) <- "m"
DT[, alt := format_units(alt, unit = "km")]

units(DT$temp) <- "K" DT[, temp := format_units(temp, 3, unit = "deg_C")] units(DT$pres) <- "Pa"
DT[, pres := format_units(pres, unit = "hPa")]

units(DT$dens) <- "kg/m^3" DT[, dens := format_units(dens, unit = "g/m^3", unit_form = "implicit")] units(DT$sound) <- "m/s"
DT[, sound := format_units(sound, 4)]

knitr::kable(
DT,
align = "r",
col.names = c("Altitude", "Temperature", "Pressure", "Density", "Speed of sound")
)
Altitude Temperature Pressure Density Speed of sound
0 [km] 15.0 [°C] 1013.00 [hPa] 1230.00 [g m-3] 340.3 [m/s]
10 [km] -49.9 [°C] 265.00 [hPa] 414.00 [g m-3] 299.5 [m/s]
20 [km] -56.5 [°C] 55.29 [hPa] 88.90 [g m-3] 295.1 [m/s]
30 [km] -46.6 [°C] 11.97 [hPa] 18.40 [g m-3] 301.7 [m/s]
40 [km] -22.8 [°C] 2.87 [hPa] 4.00 [g m-3] 317.2 [m/s]
50 [km] -2.5 [°C] 0.80 [hPa] 1.03 [g m-3] 329.8 [m/s]
60 [km] -26.1 [°C] 0.22 [hPa] 0.31 [g m-3] 315.1 [m/s]
70 [km] -53.6 [°C] 0.05 [hPa] 0.08 [g m-3] 297.1 [m/s]
80 [km] -74.5 [°C] 0.01 [hPa] 0.02 [g m-3] 282.5 [m/s]

## US customary units

The same table can be formatted in US customary units as shown below.

# Data set included with formatdown
DT <- copy(atmos)

units(DT$alt) <- "m" DT[, alt := format_units(alt, unit = "ft")] units(DT$temp) <- "K"
DT[, temp := format_units(temp, 2, unit = "deg_F")]

units(DT$pres) <- "Pa" DT[, pres := format_units(pres, unit = "psi")] units(DT$dens) <- "kg/m^3"
DT[, dens := format_units(dens, unit = "lb/ft^3", unit_form = "implicit")]

units(DT\$sound) <- "m/s"
DT[, sound := format_units(sound, 4, unit = "ft/s")]

knitr::kable(
DT,
align = "r",
col.names = c("Altitude", "Temperature", "Pressure", "Density", "Speed of sound")
)
Altitude Temperature Pressure Density Speed of sound
0 [ft] 59 [deg_F] 14.6923 [psi] 0.076786 [lb ft-3] 1116.4 [ft/s]
32808 [ft] -58 [deg_F] 3.8435 [psi] 0.025845 [lb ft-3] 982.7 [ft/s]
65617 [ft] -70 [deg_F] 0.8019 [psi] 0.005550 [lb ft-3] 968.1 [ft/s]
98425 [ft] -52 [deg_F] 0.1736 [psi] 0.001149 [lb ft-3] 989.9 [ft/s]
131234 [ft] -9 [deg_F] 0.0416 [psi] 0.000250 [lb ft-3] 1040.6 [ft/s]
164042 [ft] 27 [deg_F] 0.0116 [psi] 0.000064 [lb ft-3] 1082.0 [ft/s]
196850 [ft] -15 [deg_F] 0.0032 [psi] 0.000019 [lb ft-3] 1033.7 [ft/s]
229659 [ft] -64 [deg_F] 0.0008 [psi] 0.000005 [lb ft-3] 974.6 [ft/s]
262467 [ft] -102 [deg_F] 0.0002 [psi] 0.000001 [lb ft-3] 927.0 [ft/s]