This package provides functions and methods to create and manipulate functions commonly used during modeling (e.g. fitting the model, making predictions, etc). It allows the user to manipulate how the same type of model can be created from different sources.

Modeling functions across different R packages can have very
different interfaces. If you would like to try different approaches,
there is a lot of syntactical minutiae to remember. The problem worsens
when you move in-between platforms (e.g. doing a logistic regression in
R’s `glm`

versus Spark’s implementation).

`parsnip`

tries to solve this by providing similar
interfaces to models. For example, if you are fitting a random forest
model and would like to adjust the number of trees in the forest there
are different argument names to remember:

`randomForest::randomForest`

uses`ntree`

,`ranger::ranger`

uses`num.trees`

,

- Spark’s
`sparklyr::ml_random_forest`

uses`num_trees`

.

Rather than remembering these values, a common interface to these models can be used with

The package makes the translation between `trees`

and the
real names in each of the implementations.

Some terminology:

- The
**model type**differentiates models. Example types are: random forests, logistic regression, linear support vector machines, etc. - The
**mode**of the model denotes how it will be used. Two common modes are*classification*and*regression*. Others would include “censored regression” and “risk regression” (parametric and Cox PH models for censored data, respectively), as well as unsupervised models (e.g. “clustering”). - The
**computational engine**indicates how the actual model might be fit. These are often R packages (such as`randomForest`

or`ranger`

) but might also be methods outside of R (e.g. Stan, Spark, and others).

`parsnip`

, similar to `ggplot2`

,
`dplyr`

and `recipes`

, separates the specification
of what you want to do from the actual doing. This allows us to create
broader functionality for modeling.

There are times where you would like to change a parameter from its
default but you are not sure what the final value will be. This is the
basis for *model tuning* where we use the tune package. Since the model is
not executing when created, these types of parameters can be changed
using the `tune()`

function. This provides a simple
placeholder for the value.

```
tune_mtry <- rand_forest(trees = 2000, mtry = tune())
tune_mtry
#> Random Forest Model Specification (unknown mode)
#>
#> Main Arguments:
#> mtry = tune()
#> trees = 2000
#>
#> Computational engine: ranger
```

This will come in handy later when we fit the model over different
values of `mtry`

.

Commonly used arguments to the modeling functions have their
parameters exposed in the function. For example,
`rand_forest`

has arguments for:

`mtry`

: The number of predictors that will be randomly sampled at each split when creating the tree models.`trees`

: The number of trees contained in the ensemble.`min_n`

: The minimum number of data points in a node that are required for the node to be split further.

The arguments to the default function are:

```
args(rand_forest)
#> function (mode = "unknown", engine = "ranger", mtry = NULL, trees = NULL,
#> min_n = NULL)
#> NULL
```

However, there might be other arguments that you would like to change
or allow to vary. These are accessible using `set_engine`

.
For example, `ranger`

has an option to set the internal
random number seed. To set this to a specific value:

```
rf_with_seed <-
rand_forest(trees = 2000, mtry = tune(), mode = "regression") %>%
set_engine("ranger", seed = 63233)
rf_with_seed
#> Random Forest Model Specification (regression)
#>
#> Main Arguments:
#> mtry = tune()
#> trees = 2000
#>
#> Engine-Specific Arguments:
#> seed = 63233
#>
#> Computational engine: ranger
```

To fit the model, you must:

- have a defined model, including the
*mode*, - have no
`tune()`

parameters, and - specify a computational engine.

For example, `rf_with_seed`

above is not ready for fitting
due the `tune()`

parameter. We can set that parameter’s value
and then create the model fit:

```
#> parsnip model object
#>
#> Ranger result
#>
#> Call:
#> ranger::ranger(x = maybe_data_frame(x), y = y, mtry = min_cols(~4, x), num.trees = ~2000, num.threads = 1, verbose = FALSE, seed = sample.int(10^5, 1))
#>
#> Type: Regression
#> Number of trees: 2000
#> Sample size: 32
#> Number of independent variables: 10
#> Mtry: 4
#> Target node size: 5
#> Variable importance mode: none
#> Splitrule: variance
#> OOB prediction error (MSE): 5.57
#> R squared (OOB): 0.847
```

Or, using the `randomForest`

package:

```
set.seed(56982)
rf_with_seed %>%
set_args(mtry = 4) %>%
set_engine("randomForest") %>%
fit(mpg ~ ., data = mtcars)
```

```
#> parsnip model object
#>
#>
#> Call:
#> randomForest(x = maybe_data_frame(x), y = y, ntree = ~2000, mtry = min_cols(~4, x))
#> Type of random forest: regression
#> Number of trees: 2000
#> No. of variables tried at each split: 4
#>
#> Mean of squared residuals: 5.52
#> % Var explained: 84.3
```

Note that the call objects show `num.trees = ~2000`

. The
tilde is the consequence of `parsnip`

using quosures to
process the model specification’s arguments.

Normally, when a function is executed, the function’s arguments are
immediately evaluated. In the case of `parsnip`

, the model
specification’s arguments are *not*; the expression
is captured along with the environment where it should be evaluated.
That is what a quosure does.

`parsnip`

uses these expressions to make a model fit call
that is evaluated. The tilde in the call above reflects that the
argument was captured using a quosure.