plm: Linear Models for Panel Data

A set of estimators for models and (robust) covariance matrices, and tests for panel data econometrics, including within/fixed effects, random effects, between, first-difference, nested random effects as well as instrumental-variable (IV) and Hausman-Taylor-style models, panel generalized method of moments (GMM) and general FGLS models, mean groups (MG), demeaned MG, and common correlated effects (CCEMG) and pooled (CCEP) estimators with common factors, variable coefficients and limited dependent variables models. Test functions include model specification, serial correlation, cross-sectional dependence, panel unit root and panel Granger (non-)causality. Typical references are general econometrics text books such as Baltagi (2021), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data (<doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53953-5>), Hsiao (2014), Analysis of Panel Data (<doi:10.1017/CBO9781139839327>), and Croissant and Millo (2018), Panel Data Econometrics with R (<doi:10.1002/9781119504641>).

Version: 2.6-4
Depends: R (≥ 3.2.0)
Imports: MASS, bdsmatrix, collapse (≥ 1.8.9), zoo, nlme, sandwich, lattice, lmtest, maxLik, Rdpack, Formula, stats
Suggests: AER, car, statmod, urca, pder, texreg, knitr, rmarkdown, fixest, lfe
Published: 2024-04-01
DOI: 10.32614/CRAN.package.plm
Author: Yves Croissant [aut], Giovanni Millo [aut], Kevin Tappe [aut, cre], Ott Toomet [ctb], Christian Kleiber [ctb], Achim Zeileis [ctb], Arne Henningsen [ctb], Liviu Andronic [ctb], Nina Schoenfelder [ctb]
Maintainer: Kevin Tappe <kevin.tappe at>
License: GPL-2 | GPL-3 [expanded from: GPL (≥ 2)]
NeedsCompilation: no
Citation: plm citation info
Materials: README NEWS
In views: CausalInference, Econometrics, MixedModels, SpatioTemporal
CRAN checks: plm results


Reference manual: plm.pdf
Vignettes: Panel data econometrics in R: the plm package
Estimation of error components models with the plm function
Model components for fitted models with plm


Package source: plm_2.6-4.tar.gz
Windows binaries: r-devel:, r-release:, r-oldrel:
macOS binaries: r-release (arm64): plm_2.6-4.tgz, r-oldrel (arm64): plm_2.6-4.tgz, r-release (x86_64): plm_2.6-4.tgz, r-oldrel (x86_64): plm_2.6-4.tgz
Old sources: plm archive

Reverse dependencies:

Reverse depends: clusterSEs, cquad, pder, pglm, SpatialRegimes, xtsum
Reverse imports: apc, censReg, DIDHAD, DIDmultiplegtDYN, em, ExPanDaR, feisr, frontier, GLMpack, lpirfs, micEcon, netmediate, panelSUR, pdR, pspatreg, Rchoice, rewie, robomit, SDPDmod, sfaR, splm, tvReg, vannstats, winputall
Reverse suggests: AER, BMisc, broom, broom.helpers, clubSandwich, collapse, dfidx, did, Ecdat, effClust, fixest, fullRankMatrix, GCCfactor, getspanel, insight, lfe, marginaleffects, meboot, panelr, parameters, pgsc, sandwich, spacetime, stars, systemfit, xtable
Reverse enhances: prediction, stargazer, texreg


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